Monday, February 3, 2014

"When we got to that fence and laid down a short while...": Callom Jones and the 15th Virginia in the West Woods

Jones' references plotted on the Cope/Carman 1908 map.
9:00 Map. A: "we had to get over a fence;" B: "to our
right front there was a rick of Straw;" C: "[100 yards in
front of the Union line was] "a rock
fence that had been pulled down;" D and F: we "ran the
enemy through these woods...when we came to another
field...there was some stacks of straw, a barn, and dwelling
a little to our left." 
Ashland, Va
Oct 13th 1899

Gen. E A Carman:
Dear Sir,
In reply to your communication,[1] would state, I cannot say positively what direction we were going but it seemed to me to be north. We forded the river about light that morning,[2] at Sheppardstown[3], and stacked arms, and after resting a very short time we fell in, and double-quicked N.E. into a piece of woods, where we threw off what baggage we had, and turned a little to the left, and came out into another field, where Kershaw’s brigade wheeled into line, not the right. Then Barksdale's in the same direct[ion], then our brigade (Semmes)[4] to form line we had to get over a fence, where we were fired into, and we lost the most of our men in our Co E (15th Va) directly after getting over that fence. It was a stubble field, and just to our right front there was a rick of Straw (not a stack). 

I remember distinctly seeing our skirmishers at the end next to us, and the enemy’s at the other end, nearest the woods, and they were captured as we advanced. 

The enemy’s line was in the edge of some oak woods, and about 100 yards in front of it was a rock fence that had been pulled down,[5] when we got to that fence we laid down a short while, we lost some men here also. 

We charged again, and ran the enemy through these woods, going N.E. it seemed to me, when we came to another field, in which, there was some stacks of straw, a barn, and a dwelling a little to our left,[6] at the straw stacks there were right many wounded federal Soldiers, and some dead. 

10:30 Map. F marks the straw stacks south of the
Miller farmstead.
We only went a short distance beyond the stacks, we had lost very heavily, and [our] line was very thin, and scattered at that, she we were ordered back and came back to able where we went in the fight. 

We were relieved by some of Jackson’s men, and we went back to the brigade hospital, about a mile in the rear, where we remained all the next day, and recrossed the River about the same time we had crossed two days before. 

From my description I think you might mark out the course we took better than I could not seeing Shepperdstown on your map.[7] If you could find out the way the 10 Geo were went you could, [find]
the way we went for we were between the 10 Geo and 32nd Va. 

I was only a private in Co. E. 15th Va, and they didn’t know much of anything in the Army. My Cpt J.C. Govers[8] is still living in Washington D.C. where if you could find him he might give you some information worth having. 

I have thought of going over the battlefield since the war, but have never had the time to spare, but I believe I could go over the same ground again, unless they have made many alterations. 
Callom B. Jones (1842-1912).
Picture credit: George Seitz.

If I can at anytime be of any service let me know for I am interest in having correct maps as well as histories of the Civil War, and the only way to get at the facts is from the men who participated in the fights. 

Hoping you may derive such information as you desire.
I remain

Very respectfully

Callom B. Jones, MD[9]


Photo: Find-a-Grave researcher George Seitz.

Callom Jones to Ezra A. Carman, October 13, 1899, Antietam Studies, Record Group 92, National Archives.  This is one of three letters written by Callom Jones to Carman. The other two penned on September 30, 1899 and February 5, 1900 are substantially the same if not shorter. Of the three, this letter is the most polished. Any substantive differences between this and the other two are annotated here.

[1] Letter not found.

[2] In his September 30, 1899 letter, Jones states that "we forded the river about daybreak."

[3] Shepherdstown, Va.
[4] All parentheses are those of the the writer.
[5] No maps of the battlefield show a stone fence in this vicinity. What Jones may be referring to is the limestone rock outcroppings on the Alfred Poffenberger farmstead. Farmers, unable to plant along these outcroppings often deposited boulders and other rocks pulled from the plowed field along the length of outcroppings. The outcroppings and field boulders are still visible today on this property.

[6] This was the David Miller farmstead.
[7] In his February 5, 1900 letter to Carman, Jones states "I don't think we could have gone more than three courts of a mile if that in the charge and pursuit together."

[8] Captain John C. Govers, then 29, resided in Richmond, Virginia before the war. He was promoted from 1st Lieutenant to company captain on July 1, 1862. Govers was captured at Dinwiddie Court House, Virginia and committed to the Old Capitol Prison, Washington, D.C. on April 3, 1865. On April 9th he was forwarded to Johnson’s Island, Ohio prisoner of war camp. He swore an oath of allegiance there on June 18, 1865. His camp papers show him to be 5’11” with black hair, fair complexion, and hazel eyes. National Archives, Record Group 109. Publication number M324. Compiled service records of Confederate soldiers from Virginia units, labeled with each soldier's name, rank, and unit, with links to revealing documents about each soldier. Roll 0562.
[9] Callom Bohannan Jones, Jr., was a student at the Ashland Male Academy at the outbreak of the war when its headmaster, St. George Tucker, closed the school and formed the Ashland Grays. Jones, along with several classmates followed Tucker into service and first appeared on the company muster roll on April 23, 1861. The Ashland Grays were designated Company E, 15th Virginia. Jones served with the regiment through the end of the war and was paroled on April 9, 1865 at Appomattox Court House. While Jones survived, Tucker did not and died of a respiratory infection, possibly tuberculosis, in Charlottesville, Va. on January 24, 1863. Jones was born May 15, 1842 in the West District, Hanover, Virginia. His physician father, Callom B. Jones, Sr., headed the household of three daughters and his son after Callom’s mother, Mary Wingfield, died between 1841 and 1849. After the war, Jones followed his father into the medical profession, graduated from the Medical College of Virginia in 1869, and established a practice in Ashland. During this time he married Sallie Newman (1855-1935). Jones and his wife are buried in Woodland Cemetery in Ashland, Hanover, Virginia. Hanover County Chancery Wills and Notes (Columbia, Virginia, 1940), p. 170; Ashland During the Civil War, 1861-65, Ashland Museum; National Archives, Record Group 109. Publication number M324. Compiled service records of Confederate soldiers from Virginia units, labeled with each soldier's name, rank, and unit, with links to revealing documents about each soldier. Rolls 0564 and 0568; "The Virginia Medical Semi-Monthly," (Volume 17, June 21, 1912), page 156; U.S. Federal Census for Virginia, 1840, 1850, and 1860; see also, researcher report in Find-a-Grave Memorial 19240335.

Saturday, February 1, 2014

Lost Roads of the Maryland Campaign: Part 3

That the village of Keedysville is mentioned in the Official Records no less than 52 times is enough to demonstrate the importance of this place in the Maryland Campaign. Situated halfway between Boonsboro and Sharpsburg on the Boonsboro Pike,[1] the town saw both armies stream through its main street on their way to Antietam Creek. During and after the battle its homes, churches, and commercial and public buildings became part of the wide array of hospitals and shelters that spread outward from the field. Today the Boonsboro Pike is Maryland Route 34. Around 1961 the state built a bypass that gracefully arced to the west of the town.[2] Once completed, the north and south exits from Keedysville were abandoned. Today you can readily see where the original Main Street ran and now marked as a dead end.

[1] Current maps label the road the Shepherdstown Pike (Maryland Route 34). The Cope/Carman Maps, 1908 edition, refers to it as the "Boonsboro Pike." Carman, in the Maryland Campaign, refers to the route variably as the "Boonsboro and Sharpsburg Turnpike," "the Sharpsburg and Keedysville road," and simply "the Keedysville road."

[2] Wikipedia, citing the Maryland: Official Highway Map (Annapolis: Maryland State Roads Commission, 1961 ed.), states that the bypass was completed by 1961.

North Main Street, Keedysville, looking north. The original road can be readily seen in this view.

The end of North Main Street from Google Earth.

North Main Street, September 1862.

Thursday, January 2, 2014

"I was left for some time within the battery:" John Sedgwick and Woodruff's Battery at Antietam

Major-General John Sedgwick
Library of Congress
"Headquarters 6th Army Corps, Culpeper, October 1, 1863.

To George Woodruff, Esq.[1]

Dear sir:

I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your communications of the 25th instant in regard to the services of your son, the late Lieutenant G.A. Woodruff, 1st Artillery, U.S.A.[2] I will to-day forward your letter to Lieutenant-Colonel James H. Taylor, who was Chief of Staff to the late Major-General Sumner, [3] under whose command the artillery of the division was directed. ...

At the battle of Antietam I again had occasion to notice your son's gallantry,
George A. Woodruff
then in command of his battery. Whilst leaving the field, my horse having been killed, and badly wounded myself,[4] I was left for some time within the battery, which was then engaged in repulsing and did repulse the column of the enemy that had broken my division. No veteran could have selected a better position, and no one could have shown more gallantry in defending it. I made no report of this battle, or I should have mentioned especially the services of your son and his battery. This was the last of my service with him; but I presume Lieutenant-Colonel Taylor will give you a more detailed and connected history of your son's service. ..."

Woodruff's Battery circled in blue. From the Cope/Carman
Map 9:00 Hrs. (1908 Edition, Library of Congress).
Source: Correspondence of John Sedgwick Major-General, Volume II (Printed for Carl and Ellen Battelle Stoeckel, 1908), pp. 158-159.


1. George Woodruff was an attorney, judge, and farmer residing in Marshall, Michigan. Census records and biographical information from retrieved from Camp No. 22, Sons of Union Veterans web page for George A. Woodruff.
2. Lt. George August Woodruff (1840-1863), was battery commander of the 1st United States Artillery, Battery I at Antietam. A graduate of the West Point class of 1861 he was commissioned 2nd Lt. and 1st Lt., on June 24, 1861. He was killed at Gettysburg on July 3, 1863. George Woodruff's two other brothers, William S. and Frank, were also killed during the war. Their mother, Augusta Schuyler Woodruff, died a short time after the death of her sons. Brian Downey's encyclopedic Antietam on the Web under Woodruff; History of Calhoun County [Michigan] (L.H. Everts & Co., 1877), p. 40 and Camp No. 22, Sons of Union Veterans web page for George A. Woodruff. For a more extensive article on George A. Woodruff see Logan Tappscott, "Bravery on the Battlefield: 1st Lieutenant George A. Woodruff" in The Gettysburg Compiler: On the Front Lines of History.
3. Edwin Vose Sumner died in Syracuse, New York, March 21, 1863.
4. In his eulogy, George William Curtis stated that Sedgwick was "struck by a bullet in the leg, and again in the wrist, ... a third shot struck him, and he was borne insensible from the field." "The Oration of The Honourable George William Curtis Delivered at the Dedication of the Statue to Major-General John Sedgwick, at West Point, New York, October 21, 1868," Ibid.,  p. 201.

Monday, December 30, 2013

Lost Roads of the Maryland Campaign: Part 2

Google Earth view of Maryland Route 65
as it runs past the west side of the Park.
In the early 1960s highway planners laid out Maryland Route 65 to bypass the Antietam National Battlefield Park. The improved road would follow the original Hagerstown Pike northward from Sharpsburg, then as it approached the Park, would curve around to the west before continuing north and connecting to the original Pike north of the field.

The route of the highway followed the old farm trace that ran between the Alfred Poffenberger farmstead and the Nicodemus farmstead to the north and, of course, ran right between the Federal and Confederate battle lines.

Most of Sedgwick's division would find itself on the east side of the new highway while Semmes' brigade and remnants of Hood's and Grigsby's divisions were to the west.

The curving of the route south of the Park entrance abandoned a 200 yard portion of the original Hagerstown Pike. The original Carman iron tablets mark its route now covered by grass.

Detail of the westward curve just south
of the field.

The original Hagerstown Pike traced in graphic pen. The
red circle shows one of the Carman iron tablets visible in the
following ground-level photo.
A view of the original Hagerstown Pike looking south.
Three iron tablets are visible and mark the original
Pike (as well as the original tour route). 

Saturday, December 28, 2013

Lost Roads of the Maryland Campaign--Part 1

The maps and photographs in this post are the first installment in a series of occasional posts on "lost roads" of the Maryland Campaign. Anyone driving the byways and highways that criss-cross Montgomery, Frederick, and Washington Counties in that state will find remnants and evidence of routes traversed in 1862 but now abandoned. Over the past century-and-a-half, as state and county highway departments straightened roads and leveled grades, the 1862 routes have been either widened, paved over, and otherwise obliterated.

Route 355. Maryland Route 355 (Rockville Pike) bisecting Montgomery County is an example. The ancient trace that the Army of the Potomac, including Sumner's II Corps, followed out of its camps in Tenally Town, District of Columbia now hosts a six lane highway providing consumers access to wall-to-wall malls. But as you continue along Rte. 355 northward to Frederick, once past the Rockville and Gaithersburg suburbs the route narrows to a two lane highway through the still small towns of Hyattstown and Urbana. While the two-laner now evokes the original road, the highway engineer's quest to smooth and straighten the horse track for the automobile is evident and even memorialized. Just south of the point where the route skirts the Monocacy Battlefield, is a stone monument that celebrates the successful straightening of the ancient road. 

The road taken. In the 1920s a segment of the original Frederick road was abandoned by the straightening of Maryland
Route 355. In this north facing view, a stone boulder and roadside marker shown here now marks this feat.
The original Frederick road continues on the left while Maryland Route 355 runs on the right.
Despite the endeavors of the engineers,  every so often you can still make out a trace of an original road left abandoned by straightening and grading. This is the case on Route 355 and it is the case on many of the routes that lead to Sharpsburg. Sometimes these abandoned sections are easy to spot; other times you can just make out the old road now filled with brambles and trees.

The Upper Bridge Approach. The first post in the "lost road" series is about the original route from Keedysville to the Upper Bridge. This route at some point was truncated and the approach to the bridge abandoned. Today the only way to go is by way of Pry Mill--a route also available in 1862--and the original direct route is now impassable.

Map of the Battlefield of Antietam No. 1. Antietam Board, 1893. In 1862, the most direct route from Keedysville
to the Upper Bridge a direct westerly route out of town. At some point in the past 151 years, this direct route
was truncated and the approach to the bridge abandoned. The present day Coffman Farm Road traces the
original route from Keedysville, across Rte. 34, and then to its truncated spur now abandoned. Numerical
references (in red) refer to photos below.

Google Earth map of present day Coffman Farm Road. Red route
parallels the current road. Blue route traces the now-abandoned bridge approach.

View of the lost Keedysville Road looking east from vantage point 1 (see map above).
View  looking east from vantage point 2.

View at vantage point 3  looking west toward the Upper Bridge just beyond the vehicle. 
Since these photos were taken in 2011, wind storms have brought down a significant 
number of trees on the abandoned road bed. The route, however, can still be 
traversed albeit with more difficulty than in 2011.

Sunday, November 24, 2013

"We knew that the devil would be to play somewhere on our lines:" William H. Andrews and the First Georgia in the West Woods

Sometime in the late 1890s William H. Andrews, a private in the First Georgia Regulars wrote to the Antietam Battlefield Board describing his recollection of the movement of the regiment to and through the West Woods. The annotated transcription of that letter follows.

"Battle of Antietam Md.

Early in the morning of Sept. 15, 1862 General Lee formed line of battle in front of Sharpsburg, Md. facing Antietam creek. General Longstreet's Corps occupied the right and D. H. Hill the left General Jackson's Corps being at Harper's Ferry. Anderson's, Toombs' and Drayton's Georgia Brigades were on the right of the road facing the creek.

General McClellan's forces arrived and formed line of battle on the north side of Antietam Creek his left opposite the Blue Ridge Mountains his right extending up the creek.

There was considerable sharpshooting throughout the day. Early on the morning of the 16th we saw a signal flag posted on top of the Blue Ridge[1] opposite the Federal left. While we could not read the signals we knew that the devil would be to play somewhere on our lines. We were not long left in suspense. His batteries on the left opened on our extreme right. General Drayton's[2] brigade which was in full view of our position[.] Every shell seemed to explode right in their ranks where they were lying down.

General Lee's line of artillery only extending to the right of Anderson's brigade and was posted along in our front it opened on the enemy's artillery drawing the fire to our part of the line. It was one of the hottest artillery duels I ever witnessed.

Our brigade was lying down some 50 yards in rear of the guns and in rear of the hill. Not many yards distant were the houses in Sharpsburg which had been deserted by their occupants when we first formed line of battle.

At one time during the shelling some of our boys had entered a dwelling in search of something to eat, as we had been two days without rations they found a table ready spread with the meal prepared to sit down to. The boys made themselves at home [and] took seats around the table and proceeded to devour everything in sight. About the time they had got in a good way eating, a shell crashed through the house knocking the table over and spilling its contents on the floor. It is needless to say that put an end to the feast.

During the shelling, I saw the extremes of bravery and cowardice. In the hottest of the shelling General Longstreet rode leisurely along the line in rear of the pieces [and] he and his horse both seemed perfectly indifferent to danger. Not long after in the same indifferent way General G. T. Anderson (Old Tige)[4] walked the line during the whole engagement with his hands crossed behind his back as unconcerned as though they were using fire crackers instead of shells.

To cap the climax our assistant surgeon made an ass of himself. The shelling was so terribly hot that the doctor became demoralized and made a break for the rear. Some of the boys called to him to come back he had a good place, he turned and ran back to find the shells exploding all around him. Someone else would call to him to run there and the way he would go with the whole line laughing at him. After running up and down the line for half dozen times he made a break for the bend east of the town and the boys rolled over and yelled themselves hoarse.

The artillery duel continued for a considerable for a considerable time but finally our guns were rounded and beat a hasty retreat to the rear.

About noon General Lee was sitting on his horse in the road at the left of our brigade when General Jackson rode up and saluted him, you should have seen the smile on the face of Longstreet's men at the sight of the famous stonewall. We knew his foot cavalry was not far distant and we felt like we needed just a little re-enforcement.

General Jackson formed on General Hill's left except A.P. Hill's Division which was left at Harper's Ferry to parole the prisoners. Sometime in the evening[5] General McClellan's forces crossed the Antietam and attacked Jacksons position above Sharpsburg when a considerable engagement took place night putting an end to the strife.

The grey streak of dawn had just begun to mantle the eastern sky on the morning of September 17th when fighting was resumed in Jackson's front and soon became a general engagement along the entire front. General Anderson's brigade was ordered to General Jackson's left. We moved by the left flank to our left passing the pump at the northwest corner of town then turned to the southwest passing a spring on our left. To our right was a field of green corn occupied by the enemy's artillery and from the noise they made through the corn must have been shooting trace chains[6] instead of shells.
In the stubble field between the spring and cornfield the ground was covered with Confederate dead and wounded. The wounded would ask what command as we went over them and being told Georgians they would cheer us on to victory or death. We must have gone at least one mile to the southwest of Sharpsburg when the order was given by the right flank, we moved in line of battle through a large field to a heavy timbered piece of woods[7] which was occupied in heavy force by the enemy in line of battle.

Before reaching the woods the enemy's sharpshooters opened fire on us. General Anderson ordered his brigade sharpshooters to the front. The brigade reached the fence and tore it down making breastworks of it when we were ordered to lie down.

Our sharpshooters entered the woods and I saw a Federal officer with high military boots on shot down and he had not quite stopped kicking before his boots were off. Shoes were in great demand in Lee's army as thousands were barefooted and you could trail them by their blood.

Soon after we arrived at the fence, Kershaw's South Carolina Brigade marched up within twenty feet of our line and halted. Just at the right of our brigade a regiment moved in by the right flank, the enemy's line of battle was beyond the ridge in a bottom and not visible from our position at the fence. As the head of the column rose the ridge the enemy opened fire on them. The regiment was ordered to right wheel into line which was promptly executed under the enemy's fire and on reaching the crest of the ridge opened fire, Kershaw's South Carolina Brigade was then ordered in passing over us[.]

General Kershaw asked what command and being told Anderson's Georgia Brigade called for three cheers for the Georgians which his men gave with a vim and moved forward into the fight. It made the Georgia boys feel good to watch the Palmetto boys move into action. As their heads rose over the ridge the enemy opened fire on them, but not a man flinched or a gun fired until they reached the crest and then such a volley of musketry as would scare a weak kneed soldier to death.

General Anderson then ordered his brigade by the left flank double quick and away we went at the right shoulder shift [--] how steady the boys moved as though on drill.

As we were well under way the enemy opened fire on us, their line being on top [of] the ridge and not more than sixty yards from the fence.
What a move under the enemy's fire, but not a bobble or a break until we gained our brigade distance to the left so we could come in on the S.E. left General Anderson then gave the order by the right flank and we jumped the fence it would then have done your heart good to hear the rifles of the Georgia boys.

As I jumped over the fence and cast my eyes to the front I saw directly in front of me the stars and stripes[.] [H]ow defiant that flag looked as it unfurled to the breeze then gradually wound itself around the staff to be lifted again by the powder exploding around it. Right then and there I though it would be the greatest feat of my life if I could topple that flag in the dust by shooting the color bearer. In placing my rifle to my shoulder I pressed the trigger, but instead of the colors falling my gun snapped[. M]y feelings can better be imagined than described. I had to pick the trobe and recap before I knew what was going on about me.

On looking up I saw that the line had passed me[. T]he order to charge had been given and I saw Lieut. G.B. Lamar,[8] Captain Wayne[9] and several other officers with swords aloft calling on the men to follow them. The line had fired about two volleys when ordered to charge.
The enemy were generally routed leaving the ground covered with the dead and wounded (I was on many battlefields during the war but never saw the ground covered so thick with the fallen) it then became a tree to tree fight. Anderson's Brigade sweeping everything before it.

During the fight I passed Captain Wayne and one or two other officers supporting Captain Montgomery[10] who was wounded in the head. He was promptly sent to the rear.

It seemed like it was only a few minutes that we were driving the enemy out of the woods, it being a total rout as the last squad I saw only amounted to three men. When our brigade was nearly through the woods a staff officer dashed down the line and ordered our line to fall back as the South Carolina boys had failed to move the enemy in their front and were were in a position to be cut off.

The line ceased firing about faced and returned to where we jumped the fence, I never returned with the line but kept on with a number of others to the fence.

In the fight I had fired forty-five rounds all of my ammunition so I scrambled around until I soon had a good supply on hand and was ready for another racket.

While hunting cartridges I encountered the color bearer of the First Minnesota Regiment who was wounded through the thigh, but was taking it as cool as if it had only been a scratch, we had quite an argument about what we were fighting for. He claimed he was fighting for the Union I told him he was fighting for the negro.

While talking to him a Federal Battery dashed up to the fence and opened through the woods[,] the shells passing between myself and the brigade. About that time an officer requested several others and myself to establish a picket line on the left to keep the enemy from flanking us, which we did but the artillery fire became so hot we moved still farther to the left out of range.

When I finally sought my command it had moved up to the right [and] charged the enemy in an apple orchard[11] where our Colonel W.J. Magill[12] lost his arm.

On the 18th there was some sharpshooting and a little shelling from our side but no reply to it. About 11 p.m. we retreated across the Potomac.
As to your questions.

Anderson did not have over 500 men, half of the 11th was guarding a wagon train. First Georgia regulars carried about fifty men into action judging by Company M[,] my own company. I was acting orderly sergeant and carried one corporal and three privates into action who escaped unhurt. As to the number killed and wounded I suppose there must have been some but can not recollect any killed and but two wounded Colonel Magill and Captain Montgomery. Colonel William J. Magill commanded until he lost his arm at the apple orchard.

W.H Andrews,[13]

East Atlanta, Ga.

Source: Antietam William H. Andrews to Unknown, no date, no place, Antietam Studies, Record Group 92, National Archives.

While the recipient and date of this letter is not known, it must have been directed to a member of the Antietam Board. Given other correspondence to the Board, this letter was probably written in the late 1890s. 

For more on the First Georgia, see the excellent blog One More Shot maintained by George W. Martin at


[1] This was probably the Federal signal station on Elk Ridge. For more on signal stations, see the excellent National Park Service page at
[2] Brigadier General Thomas Fenwick Drayton (1808-1891) commanded his brigade that was part of David Rumph Jones’ Division. Brian Downey’s Antietam on the Web.

[4] Col. George Thomas Anderson (1824-1901) commanded Anderson’s Brigade in David Rumph Jones’ Division.
[5] September 16.
[6] Trace chains were two chains attached to two or more horses so the artillery caisson could be pulled. Webster's Dictionary Online.

[7] The West Woods.

[8] First Lieutenant G.B. Lamar, Jr., First Georgia Regulars, Company F, First Georgia Regulars. He later went on to serve as Maj. Gen. Lafayette McLaws' Aide-de-Camp. He survived the war. RG 109, NARA M266, Roll 0122, Compiled service records of Confederate soldiers from Georgia units.

[9] Captain Richard A. Wayne, First Georgia Regulars, Company E. On October 9, 1862 he was promoted to Colonel of the Regiment in the stead of its wounded Colonel William J. Magill (see below). He survived the war. RG 109, NARA M266, Roll 0122, Compiled service records of Confederate soldiers from Georgia units.

[10] Captain James G. Montgomery, First Georgia Regulars, Company K. On March 19, 1864 a medical examining board stated that Montgomery was "incapacitated for full duty with his Regiment because of a gunshot wound over the left eye, with a depression of the frontal bone, received at the battle of Sharpsburg. Exposure and active exercise would seriously engager his life." He retired from service August 25, 1864. RG 109, NARA M266, Roll 0122, Compiled service records of Confederate soldiers from Georgia units.

[11] Apple Orchard

[12] Colonel William J. Magill suffered a gunshot wound to his left arm. His arm was amputated at the shoulder joint. Surgeon Abner Hard from the 8th Illinois Cavalry found Col. William Magill of the 1st Georgia Regulars at a house two miles from Shepherdstown. He wrote: “A few miles further on at a farm-house we found Colonel Magill and other rebel officers, suffering from severe wounds. The Colonel had an arm amputated at the shoulder, which, for the want of proper care, was alive with maggots. After dressing their wounds we learned that the Colonel had been educated at West Point, and was a classmate of General Pleasanton."

Magill signed a parole dated September 29, 1862 “2 miles from Shepherdstown, Md.” He was exchanged at Aikens, Virginia on November 8, 1862 and then served at Head Quarters, District of Georgia in Savannah from January 24, 1863 to October 31, 1863. He subsequently transferred to Floyd House and Ocmulgee Hospitals, Macon, Georgia. A note in his service record there describes his condition: “attended with neuralgia of stump. Wound was recd at Sharpsburg 17 July 1862 in the line of duty. Is in good general health. Is fit for Post Duty and is recommended for detail for such duty at some Post free from Malarial miasmatic to which he is peculiarly susceptible.” The incorrect date of 17 July 1862 is in the original record. He was then sent to the “malaria free” post of Whitemarsh Island, Georgia where he retired from service on October 29, 1864. Serving in the Invalid Corps he was once again captured in Athens, Georgia “by U.S. Forces under Brvt. Brig. Gen’l W. J. Palmer" and paroled on May 8, 1865. RG 109, NARA M266, Roll 0122, Compiled service records of Confederate soldiers from Georgia units; for the Shepherdstown account see, retrieved on November 12, 2013 from; for the context of Surgeon Abner Hard's account, see Abner Hard, Eighth Cavalry Regiment, Illinois Volunteers, During the Great Rebellion (Aurora, Il., 1868), pp. 181-191.

[13] William H. Andrews enlisted as a Private in Company M of the First Georgia Regulars. His parole papers dated May 1, 1865 at Greensboro, N.C. show him as a First Sergeant. By then Company M had become Company D of the First (Consolidated) Regiment Georgia Regulars. Confederate Statement of Service Reference Slip. National Archives, RG 109, Microfilm Roll 0119, 1st Infantry and 1st Regulars; Statement of Commissioner of Pensions, State of Georgia, op cit.